How to make glass from sand?

    Date:  2016-09-16Author:  ZENITH

Glass production process including:

1. Pre-processing of raw materials. The bulk material crushing, wet material is dried so that the iron-containing raw materials in addition to iron, so as to ensure the quality of the glass.

2. The batch preparation.

3. melting glass batch furnaces or crucible in the kiln is heated at high temperature so as to form a uniform, no bubbles, and glass forming liquid in line with the requirements.

4. The molded. The shaped articles, such as plates, utensils and other various liquid processed into a desired glass.

5. Heat treatment by annealing, quenching and other processes, eliminate or generate stresses inside the glass, phase separation or crystallization, and change the structure of the state of the glass.


Production of glass chemical equation:

At the start of heating, the powder in the range of 100 ~ 120 ℃ start dehydration at 600 ℃, limestone and soda ash, sodium calcium double salt generated by the following reaction.

CaCO3 + Na2CO3 = CaNa2 (CO3) 2

At 600 ~ 680 ℃, the resulting double salt with SiO2 to start the reaction:

CaNa2 (CO3) 2 + 2SiO2 = Na2SiO3 + CaSiO3 + 2CO2

At 740 ~ 800 ℃, the low-melting mixture [Na2CO3-CaNa2 (CO3) 2] begins to melt, and SiO2 and continue to function:

Na2CO3 + CaNa2 (CO3) 2 + 3SiO2 = 2Na2SiO3 + CaSiO3 + 3CO2

CaO and SiO2 melt reaction is to start at 890 ~ ​​900 ℃ when.

CaCO3 + SiO2 = CaSiO3 + CO2

At 1010 ℃, the not yet reacted CaO and SiO2 are formed of calcium silicate.

CaO + SiO2 = CaSiO3

All the material melts at slightly above 1200 deg.] C, i.e., the formation of the glass after cooling.

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